Simulations¶

graspologic.simulations.
er_np
(n, p, directed=False, loops=False, wt=1, wtargs=None, dc=None, dc_kws={})[source]¶ Samples a Erdos Renyi (n, p) graph with specified edge probability.
Erdos Renyi (n, p) graph is a simple graph with n vertices and a probability p of edges being connected.
Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: n: int
Number of vertices
p: float
Probability of an edge existing between two vertices, between 0 and 1.
directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
wt: object, optional (default=1)
Weight function for each of the edges, taking only a size argument. This weight function will be randomly assigned for selected edges. If 1, graph produced is binary.
wtargs: dictionary, optional (default=None)
Optional arguments for parameters that can be passed to weight function
wt
.dc: function or arraylike, shape (n_vertices)
dc
is used to generate a degreecorrected Erdos Renyi Model in which each node in the graph has a parameter to specify its expected degree relative to other nodes. function:
 should generate a nonnegative number to be used as a degree correction to create a heterogenous degree distribution. A weight will be generated for each vertex, normalized so that the sum of weights is 1.
 arraylike of scalars, shape (n_vertices):
 The weights should sum to 1; otherwise, they will be normalized and a warning will be thrown. The scalar associated with each vertex is the node's relative expected degree.
dc_kws: dictionary
Ignored if
dc
is none or array of scalar. Ifdc
is a function,dc_kws
corresponds to its named arguments. If not specified, in either case all functions will assume their default parameters.Returns: A : ndarray, shape (n, n)
Sampled adjacency matrix
Examples
>>> np.random.seed(1) >>> n = 4 >>> p = 0.25
To sample a binary Erdos Renyi (n, p) graph:
>>> er_np(n, p) array([[0., 0., 1., 0.], [0., 0., 1., 0.], [1., 1., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0.]])
To sample a weighted Erdos Renyi (n, p) graph with Uniform(0, 1) distribution:
>>> wt = np.random.uniform >>> wtargs = dict(low=0, high=1) >>> er_np(n, p, wt=wt, wtargs=wtargs) array([[0. , 0. , 0.95788953, 0.53316528], [0. , 0. , 0. , 0. ], [0.95788953, 0. , 0. , 0.31551563], [0.53316528, 0. , 0.31551563, 0. ]])

graspologic.simulations.
er_nm
(n, m, directed=False, loops=False, wt=1, wtargs=None)[source]¶ Samples an Erdos Renyi (n, m) graph with specified number of edges.
Erdos Renyi (n, m) graph is a simple graph with n vertices and exactly m number of total edges.
Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: n: int
Number of vertices
m: int
Number of edges, a value between 1 and \(n^2\).
directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
wt: object, optional (default=1)
Weight function for each of the edges, taking only a size argument. This weight function will be randomly assigned for selected edges. If 1, graph produced is binary.
wtargs: dictionary, optional (default=None)
Optional arguments for parameters that can be passed to weight function
wt
.Returns: A: ndarray, shape (n, n)
Sampled adjacency matrix
Examples
>>> np.random.seed(1) >>> n = 4 >>> m = 4
To sample a binary Erdos Renyi (n, m) graph:
>>> er_nm(n, m) array([[0., 1., 1., 1.], [1., 0., 0., 1.], [1., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 1., 0., 0.]])
To sample a weighted Erdos Renyi (n, m) graph with Uniform(0, 1) distribution:
>>> wt = np.random.uniform >>> wtargs = dict(low=0, high=1) >>> er_nm(n, m, wt=wt, wtargs=wtargs) array([[0. , 0.66974604, 0. , 0.38791074], [0.66974604, 0. , 0. , 0.39658073], [0. , 0. , 0. , 0.93553907], [0.38791074, 0.39658073, 0.93553907, 0. ]])

graspologic.simulations.
sbm
(n, p, directed=False, loops=False, wt=1, wtargs=None, dc=None, dc_kws={}, return_labels=False)[source]¶ Samples a graph from the stochastic block model (SBM).
SBM produces a graph with specified communities, in which each community can have different sizes and edge probabilities.
Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: n: list of int, shape (n_communities)
Number of vertices in each community. Communities are assigned n[0], n[1], ...
p: arraylike, shape (n_communities, n_communities)
Probability of an edge between each of the communities, where
p[i, j]
indicates the probability of a connection between edges in communities[i, j]
.0 < p[i, j] < 1
for alli, j
.directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
wt: object or arraylike, shape (n_communities, n_communities)
if
wt
is an object, a weight function to use globally over the sbm for assigning weights. 1 indicates to produce a binary graph. Ifwt
is an arraylike, a weight function for each of the edge communities.wt[i, j]
corresponds to the weight function between communities i and j. If the entry is a function, should accept an argument for size. An entry ofwt[i, j] = 1
will produce a binary subgraph over the i, j community.wtargs: dictionary or arraylike, shape (n_communities, n_communities)
if
wt
is an object,wtargs
corresponds to the trailing arguments to pass to the weight function. If Wt is an arraylike,wtargs[i, j]
corresponds to trailing arguments to pass towt[i, j]
.dc: function or arraylike, shape (n_vertices) or (n_communities), optional
dc
is used to generate a degreecorrected stochastic block model [1] in which each node in the graph has a parameter to specify its expected degree relative to other nodes within its community. function:
 should generate a nonnegative number to be used as a degree correction to create a heterogenous degree distribution. A weight will be generated for each vertex, normalized so that the sum of weights in each block is 1.
 arraylike of functions, shape (n_communities):
 Each function will generate the degree distribution for its respective community.
 arraylike of scalars, shape (n_vertices):
 The weights in each block should sum to 1; otherwise, they will be normalized and a warning will be thrown. The scalar associated with each vertex is the node's relative expected degree within its community.
dc_kws: dictionary or arraylike, shape (n_communities), optional
Ignored if
dc
is none or array of scalar. Ifdc
is a function,dc_kws
corresponds to its named arguments. Ifdc
is an arraylike of functions,dc_kws
should be an arraylike, shape (n_communities), of dictionary. Each dictionary is the named arguments for the corresponding function for that community. If not specified, in either case all functions will assume their default parameters.return_labels: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, only output is adjacency matrix. Otherwise, an additional output will be an array with length equal to the number of vertices in the graph, where each entry in the array labels which block a vertex in the graph is in.
Returns: A: ndarray, shape (sum(n), sum(n))
Sampled adjacency matrix
labels: ndarray, shape (sum(n))
Label vector
References
[1] Tai Qin and Karl Rohe. "Regularized spectral clustering under the DegreeCorrected Stochastic Blockmodel," Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26, 2013 Examples
>>> np.random.seed(1) >>> n = [3, 3] >>> p = [[0.5, 0.1], [0.1, 0.5]]
To sample a binary 2block SBM graph:
>>> sbm(n, p) array([[0., 0., 1., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 1., 0., 0., 1.], [1., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0.], [0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.]])
To sample a weighted 2block SBM graph with Poisson(2) distribution:
>>> wt = np.random.poisson >>> wtargs = dict(lam=2) >>> sbm(n, p, wt=wt, wtargs=wtargs) array([[0., 4., 0., 1., 0., 0.], [4., 0., 0., 0., 0., 2.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 2., 0., 0., 0., 0.]])

graspologic.simulations.
rdpg
(X, Y=None, rescale=False, directed=False, loops=False, wt=1, wtargs=None)[source]¶ Samples a random graph based on the latent positions in X (and optionally in Y)
If only X \(\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times d}\) is given, the P matrix is calculated as \(P = XX^T\). If X, Y \(\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times d}\) is given, then \(P = XY^T\). These operations correspond to the dot products between a set of latent positions, so each row in X or Y represents the latent positions in \(\mathbb{R}^{d}\) for a single vertex in the random graph Note that this function may also rescale or clip the resulting P matrix to get probabilities between 0 and 1, or remove loops. A binary random graph is then sampled from the P matrix described by X (and possibly Y).
Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: X: np.ndarray, shape (n_vertices, n_dimensions)
latent position from which to generate a P matrix if Y is given, interpreted as the left latent position
Y: np.ndarray, shape (n_vertices, n_dimensions) or None, optional
right latent position from which to generate a P matrix
rescale: boolean, optional (default=False)
when
rescale
is True, will subtract the minimum value in P (if it is below 0) and divide by the maximum (if it is above 1) to ensure that P has entries between 0 and 1. If False, elements of P outside of [0, 1] will be clippeddirected: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Diagonal elements in P matrix are removed prior to rescaling (see above) which may affect behavior. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
wt: object, optional (default=1)
Weight function for each of the edges, taking only a size argument. This weight function will be randomly assigned for selected edges. If 1, graph produced is binary.
wtargs: dictionary, optional (default=None)
Optional arguments for parameters that can be passed to weight function
wt
.Returns: A: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
A matrix representing the probabilities of connections between vertices in a random graph based on their latent positions
References
[1] Sussman, D.L., Tang, M., Fishkind, D.E., Priebe, C.E. "A Consistent Adjacency Spectral Embedding for Stochastic Blockmodel Graphs," Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 107(499), 2012 Examples
>>> np.random.seed(1)
Generate random latent positions using 2dimensional Dirichlet distribution.
>>> X = np.random.dirichlet([1, 1], size=5)
Sample a binary RDPG using sampled latent positions.
>>> rdpg(X, loops=False) array([[0., 1., 0., 0., 1.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [0., 1., 1., 0., 0.], [1., 1., 1., 0., 0.]])
Sample a weighted RDPG with Poisson(2) weight distribution
>>> wt = np.random.poisson >>> wtargs = dict(lam=2) >>> rdpg(X, loops=False, wt=wt, wtargs=wtargs) array([[0., 4., 0., 2., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 2.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 1.], [0., 2., 2., 0., 0.]])

graspologic.simulations.
er_corr
(n, p, r, directed=False, loops=False)[source]¶ Generate a pair of correlated graphs with specified edge probability Both G1 and G2 are binary matrices.
Parameters: n: int
Number of vertices
p: float
Probability of an edge existing between two vertices, between 0 and 1.
r: float
The value of the correlation between the same vertices in two graphs.
directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
Returns: G1: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
Adjacency matrix the same size as P representing a random graph.
G2: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
Adjacency matrix the same size as P representing a random graph.
Examples
>>> np.random.seed(2) >>> p = 0.5 >>> r = 0.3 >>> n = 5
To sample a correlated ER graph pair based on n, p and r:
>>> er_corr(n, p, r, directed=False, loops=False) (array([[0., 0., 1., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [0., 1., 1., 0., 1.], [0., 0., 1., 1., 0.]]), array([[0., 1., 1., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [1., 1., 1., 0., 1.], [0., 0., 1., 1., 0.]]))

graspologic.simulations.
sbm_corr
(n, p, r, directed=False, loops=False)[source]¶ Generate a pair of correlated graphs with specified edge probability Both G1 and G2 are binary matrices.
Parameters: n: list of int, shape (n_communities)
Number of vertices in each community. Communities are assigned n[0], n[1], ...
p: arraylike, shape (n_communities, n_communities)
Probability of an edge between each of the communities, where
p[i, j]
indicates the probability of a connection between edges in communities[i, j]
.0 < p[i, j] < 1
for alli, j
.r: float
Probability of the correlation between the same vertices in two graphs.
directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
Returns: G1: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
Adjacency matrix the same size as P representing a random graph.
G2: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
Adjacency matrix the same size as P representing a random graph.
Examples
>>> np.random.seed(3) >>> n = [3, 3] >>> p = [[0.5, 0.1], [0.1, 0.5]] >>> r = 0.3
To sample a correlated SBM graph pair based on n, p and r:
>>> sbm_corr(n, p, r, directed=False, loops=False) (array([[0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0.]]), array([[0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 1., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 1.], [0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 0.]]))

graspologic.simulations.
rdpg_corr
(X, Y, r, rescale=False, directed=False, loops=False)[source]¶ Samples a random graph pair based on the latent positions in X (and optionally in Y) If only X \(\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times d}\) is given, the P matrix is calculated as \(P = XX^T\). If X, Y \(\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times d}\) is given, then \(P = XY^T\). These operations correspond to the dot products between a set of latent positions, so each row in X or Y represents the latent positions in \(\mathbb{R}^{d}\) for a single vertex in the random graph. Note that this function may also rescale or clip the resulting P matrix to get probabilities between 0 and 1, or remove loops. A binary random graph is then sampled from the P matrix described by X (and possibly Y). Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: X: np.ndarray, shape (n_vertices, n_dimensions)
latent position from which to generate a P matrix if Y is given, interpreted as the left latent position
Y: np.ndarray, shape (n_vertices, n_dimensions) or None, optional
right latent position from which to generate a P matrix
r: float
The value of the correlation between the same vertices in two graphs.
rescale: boolean, optional (default=True)
when
rescale
is True, will subtract the minimum value in P (if it is below 0) and divide by the maximum (if it is above 1) to ensure that P has entries between 0 and 1. If False, elements of P outside of [0, 1] will be clipped.directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=True)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Diagonal elements in P matrix are removed prior to rescaling (see above) which may affect behavior. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
Returns: G1: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
A matrix representing the probabilities of connections between vertices in a random graph based on their latent positions
G2: ndarray (n_vertices, n_vertices)
A matrix representing the probabilities of connections between vertices in a random graph based on their latent positions
References
[1] Vince Lyzinski, Donniell E Fishkind profile imageDonniell E. Fishkind, Carey E Priebe. "Seeded graph matching for correlated ErdösRényi graphs". The Journal of Machine Learning Research, January 2014 Examples
>>> np.random.seed(1234) >>> X = np.random.dirichlet([1, 1], size=5) >>> Y = None
Generate random latent positions using 2dimensional Dirichlet distribution. Then sample a correlated RDPG graph pair:
>>> rdpg_corr(X, Y, 0.3, rescale=False, directed=False, loops=False) (array([[0., 1., 0., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 1., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 1., 0., 0., 0.]]), array([[0., 1., 0., 1., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 1., 0., 0., 0.]]))

graspologic.simulations.
mmsbm
(n, p, alpha=None, rng=None, directed=False, loops=False, return_labels=False)[source]¶ Samples a graph from Mixed Membership Stochastic Block Model (MMSBM).
MMSBM produces a graph given the specified block connectivity matrix B, which indicates the probability of connection between nodes based upon their community membership. Each node is assigned a membership vector drawn from Dirichlet distribution with parameter \(\vec{\alpha}\). The entries of this vector indicate the probabilities for that node of pertaining to each community when interacting with another node. Each node's membership is determined according to those probabilities. Finally, interactions are sampled according to the assigned memberships.
Read more in the tutorials
Parameters: n: int
Number of vertices of the graph.
p: arraylike, shape (n_communities, n_communities)
Probability of an edge between each of the communities, where
p[i, j]
indicates the probability of a connection between edges in communities \((i, j)\). 0 <p[i, j]
< 1 for all \(i, j\).alpha: arraylike, shape (n_communities,)
Parameter alpha of the Dirichlet distribution used to sample the mixedmembership vectors for each node.
alpha[i]
> 0 for all \(i\).rng: numpy.random.Generator, optional (default = None)
numpy.random.Generator
object to sample from distributions. If None, the random number generator is the Generator object constructed bynp.random.default_rng()
.directed: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, output adjacency matrix will be symmetric. Otherwise, output adjacency matrix will be asymmetric.
loops: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, no edges will be sampled in the diagonal. Otherwise, edges are sampled in the diagonal.
return_labels: boolean, optional (default=False)
If False, the only output is the adjacency matrix. If True, output is a tuple. The first element of the tuple is the adjacency matrix. The second element is a matrix in which the \((i^{th}, j^{th})\) entry indicates the membership assigned to node i when interacting with node j. Community 1 is labeled with a 0, community 2 with 1, etc. 1 indicates that no community was assigned for that interaction.
Returns: A: ndarray, shape (n, n)
Sampled adjacency matrix
labels: ndarray, shape (n, n), optional
Array containing the membership assigned to each node when interacting with another node.
References
[1] Airoldi, Edoardo, et al. “Mixed Membership Stochastic Blockmodels.” Journal of Machine Learning Research, vol. 9, 2008, pp. 1981–2014. Examples
>>> rng = np.random.default_rng(1) >>> np.random.seed(1) >>> n = 6 >>> p = [[0.5, 0], [0, 1]]
To sample a binary MMSBM in which very likely all nodes pertain to community two:
>>> alpha = [0.05, 1000] >>> mmsbm(n, p, alpha, rng = rng) array([[0., 1., 1., 1., 1., 1.], [1., 0., 1., 1., 1., 1.], [1., 1., 0., 1., 1., 1.], [1., 1., 1., 0., 1., 1.], [1., 1., 1., 1., 0., 1.], [1., 1., 1., 1., 1., 0.]])
To sample a binary MMSBM similar to 2block SBM with connectivity matrix B:
>>> rng = np.random.default_rng(1) >>> np.random.seed(1) >>> alpha = [0.05, 0.05] >>> mmsbm(n, p, alpha, rng = rng) array([[0., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 0., 0.], [0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 0., 1.], [0., 0., 0., 1., 1., 0.]])